Sex Offender Laws in the US September 11, End Registration of Juveniles, Residency Restrictions and Online Registries Acknowledgements Human Rights Watch would like to thank all of the survivors of sexual violence, former offenders and their families, social workers, advocates, law enforcement officials, and attorneys who shared their experiences and perspective with us for this report. We are especially grateful to those who trusted us with very painful and personal stories. Corinne Carey, former researcher for the US Program, undertook the original research for this report.
Overview[ edit ] Many of the challenges associated with Internet censorship are similar to those for offline censorship of more traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, books, music, radio, television, and film. One difference is that national borders are more permeable online: Thus censors must work to prevent access to information even though they lack physical or legal control over the websites themselves.
This in turn requires the use of technical censorship methods that are unique to the Internet, such as site blocking and content filtering. A Time Magazine article quotes computer scientist John Gilmoreone of the founders of the Electronic Frontier Foundationas saying "The Net interprets censorship as damage and routes around it.
Blocking and filtering can be based on relatively static blacklists or be determined more dynamically based on a real-time examination of the information being exchanged. Blacklists may be produced manually or automatically and are often not available to non-customers of the blocking software.
Blocking or filtering can be done at a centralized national level, at a decentralized sub-national level, or at an institutional level, for example in libraries, universities or Internet cafes. In some cases the censoring authorities may surreptitiously block content to mislead the public into believing that censorship has not been applied.
This is achieved by returning a fake "Not Found" error message when an attempt is made to access a blocked website. Pseudonymity and data havens such as Freenet protect free speech using technologies that guarantee material cannot be removed and prevents the identification of authors.
Technologically savvy users can often find ways to access blocked content. Nevertheless, blocking remains an effective means of limiting access to sensitive information for most users when censors, such as those in Chinaare able to devote significant resources to building and maintaining a comprehensive censorship system.
The verb " rivercrab " colloquially refers to censorship of the Internet, particularly in Asia. Access to a certain IP address is denied.
If the target Web site is hosted in a shared hosting serverall websites on the same server will be blocked. A typical circumvention method is to find proxies that have access to the target websites, but proxies may be jammed or blocked, and some Web sites, such as Wikipedia when editingalso block proxies.
Some large websites such as Google have allocated additional IP addresses to circumvent the block, but later the block was extended to cover the new addresses. Due to challenges with geolocationgeo-blocking is normally implemented via IP address blocking.
Domain name system DNS filtering and redirection: Blocked domain names are not resolved, or an incorrect IP address is returned via DNS hijacking or other means.
A typical circumvention method is to find an alternative DNS resolver that resolves domain names correctly, but domain name servers are subject to blockage as well, especially IP address blocking. Another workaround is to bypass DNS if the IP address is obtainable from other sources and is not itself blocked.
This affects the HTTP protocol. Terminate TCP packet transmissions when a certain number of controversial keywords are detected.
If a previous TCP connection is blocked by the filter, future connection attempts from both sides can also be blocked for some variable amount of time. Depending on the location of the block, other users or websites may also be blocked, if the communication is routed through the blocking location.
A circumvention method is to ignore the reset packet sent by the firewall. A technically simpler method of Internet censorship is to completely cut off all routers, either by software or by hardware turning off machines, pulling out cables.
A circumvention method could be to use a satellite ISP to access Internet.The press in the United States evolved through a long history of freedom and openness, and it operated at the beginning of the twenty-first century within one of the richest and most powerful societies in .
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Since its establishment in , the People's Republic of China has upheld a nationwide ban on pornography. News. Lexis Advance has been named the “Best Legal Solution” by the SIIA CODiE Awards. These premier awards for the software and information industries called out Lexis Advance® vast content, data analytics and visualization tools as cutting-edge and best in the legal industry.
Internet censorship is the control or suppression of what can be accessed, published, or viewed on the Internet enacted by regulators, or on their own initiative. Individuals and organizations may engage in self-censorship for moral, religious, or business reasons, to conform to societal norms, due to intimidation, or out of fear of legal or other consequences.
Human Rights Watch would like to thank all of the survivors of sexual violence, former offenders and their families, social workers, advocates, law enforcement officials, and attorneys who shared. “DID HITLER WANT WAR?” asks the internationally renowned author and political analyst, Pat Buchanan, in his recent book, “Hitler And The Unnecessary War.” Buchanan answers his own question with a definitive “No” — proving with documented facts that Hitler tried every possible means to.