This page provides you with an overview of APA format. Included is information about referencing, various citation formats with examples for each source type, and other helpful information. See more across the site.
Although you should use these citation formats in this and other biology courses, specific formats vary considerably for individual journals. If you are trying to publish a paper in a specific journal, you will be required to follow the format of that journal.
That system will not be presented here, but you should expect to encounter it in your reading of the literature. A complete listing of citation formats for published materials may be found in Huth et al Citing References in the Body Intro and Discussion of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper primarily the Intro and Discussionwhenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information.
The simplest way to do this is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e. Provide a reference to the work as soon as possible after giving the information.
Top of Page Standard Text Citation Formats There are exceptions among the various journals, but generally, in biological journals, the most frequent types of citations are shown in the following examples in red: Click and Clack demonstrated that mice treated with synthetic estrogen analogs react similarly.
The reduction in phase three courtship behavior may also be linked to nutritional status Anon. Typically, only the last name of the author s and the year of publication are given,e. Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there.
Notice that the reference to the book has a page number Gumwad This is to facilitate a reader's finding the reference in a long publication such as a book not done for journal articles. The paper by Bugjuice is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble.
For two author papers, give both authors' last names e. Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed "and others" or "et al. When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author, cite it as Anon. If you want reference a paper found in another article, do so as follows: Driblickin Oobleck A string of citations should be separated by semicolons, e.
Finally, you should note the placement of the period AFTER the parenthetical citation - the citation, too, is part of a sentence,e. Theses and dissertatons should be cited as follows: A study of hormonal regulation of body temperature and consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse Mus musculus in Nome, Alaska.
Masters Thesis, University of Alaska, Anchorage. WWW citation should be done with caution since so much is posted without peer review.Thesis writing using apa format 1. JB PradhanDepartment of Mathematics Education M.R.
Campus, Tahachal 2. APA stands for American Psychological Association. APA format is the official writing and publication style of the American Psychological Association (APA) and is commonly used to cite sources in psychology, education.
APA Style References Overview. APA papers should include references in the body of the paper in Author-Date format; each work cited in the paper should be included in the Reference List, on a separate page, at the end of the paper.
The American Psychological Association outlines specific rules for writing each of these parts, but this citation guide will focus on the style for citing the sources used to write the paper, including in-text citations and the list of references at the end. The Writing Center at Empire State College Genesee Valley Center Rochester, NY.
GUIDE TO WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS IN THE APA STYLE. This style sheet is intended only as an overview and does not cover all aspects of the APA style.
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APA citation format for a published dissertation Author. Title in italics (Doctoral dissertation). Footnotes in Chicago Citation Format How to Cite a Book in APAAutomatically cite a Dissertation in APA, Chicago, Harvard, or MLA style format.