Gender in professions

By Nikki GrafAnna Brown and Eileen Patten The gender gap in pay has narrowed sincebut it has remained relatively stable over the past 15 years or so. Based on this estimate, it would take an extra 47 days of work for women to earn what men did in Our analysis finds that the wage gap was smaller for adults ages 25 to 34 than for all workers ages 16 and older.

Gender in professions

Gender and Career Choice Men and women differ considerably in their career choices, and many factors contribute to these differences. Socialization experiences, which refer to the lifelong social learning experiences that people have when interacting with others, play a major role here.

Parents, siblings, teachers, school guidance counselors, other adult role models, peers, the media, and many other sources greatly influence how individuals view themselves based on their gender.

From an early age, parents tend to treat boys and girls differently and encourage children to engage in gender-appropriate play e.

Teachers and other adult role models such as guidance counselors, extended family members, and family friends also act differently toward boys and girls and hold different expectations for children based on their gender. Boys are expected to be more rambunctious and physically active, whereas girls are expected to be more sensitive and sociable.

Materials used in primary educational settings also contribute to the socialization experience. For instance, textbooks often depict men and women in stereotypical occupations e. The media plays a role in its portrayal of men and women in sex-typed occupational and societal roles, television shows, movies, and advertisements.

Peers also exert considerable influence and contribute to the socialization process, particularly during adolescence. Because adolescents want to fit in with their peers, the decision to pursue activities that are not consistent with sex-role expectations is a difficult one.

Gender in professions

This might include choosing to participate in activities that are gender typed e. For example, healthy adult men are expected to work, but the decision to enter the labor force is presented as a choice for girls. In this way, gender influences the initial decision of whether or not to pursue paid work outside the home.

Likewise, socialization experiences strongly influence vocational interests and career choices. Both adolescent boys and adult men report greater interest in scientific, technical, and mechanical pursuits.

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Adolescent girls and adult women indicate greater interest in social and artistic endeavors. Thus, it is not surprising that men are generally encouraged to pursue careers in engineering, business, and science, whereas women are encouraged to pursue careers in social and helping occupations.

It is also noteworthy that male-typed careers tend to offer higher status and pay than female-typed careers, contributing to the observed gender inequities in pay. The availability of same-sex role models also influences vocational interests and subsequent career choice.

Due to the differential representation of men and women in various occupations, girls are less likely to have female role models in male-dominated occupations, such as engineering, police and detective work, and construction trades. Girls are more likely to have role models in traditionally female occupations, such as education, nursing, and social work.

The opposite is true for boys. Parental role modeling also influences occupational preference and career choice, since children tend to identify most with their same-sex parents and working adults are also segregated occupationally to some extent.

Maternal employment also relates to career choice. Women have less access to the types of experience necessary for developing strong beliefs in their abilities to master career-related tasks, particularly tasks in male-dominated occupations and majors e.Notwithstanding the growing numbers of women entering the professions and considerable public debate concerned with equal opportunity and barriers to women's advancement, attempts to theorise the relation between gender and profession within the discipline of sociology remain relatively rare.

Sociology of gender is a prominent subfield of interaction directly correlated with sociology regarding social structure. One of the most important social structures is is determined based on position that an individual possesses which effects how he/she will be treated by society.

This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages). This chart provides a gender breakdown for numerous lines of work in the United States.

Gender influences a wide range of career-related attitudes, behaviors, and outcomes. This includes career choice, career experiences, occupational health, work attitudes, other people’s perceptions, and career outcomes.

Therefore, to understand individuals’ careers, it is important to consider gender. people are guided to professions accordingly. Gender stereotypes are even effective in the process of education which is the first step of having a profession.

The impact of gender stereotypes is not only seen in their access to basic education.

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