Substance produced by a microorganism or a similar product produced wholly synthetic or partially semi-synthetic by chemical synthesis and in low concentrations inhibits the growth of or kills microorganisms Arthropod:
The density and composition of the normal flora of the skin varies with anatomical locale. The high moisture content of the axilla, groin, and areas between the toes supports the activity and growth of relatively high densities of bacterial cells, but the density of bacterial populations at most other sites is fairly low, generally in s or Large intestine per square cm.
Most bacteria on the skin are sequestered in sweat glands. The skin microbes found in the most superficial layers of the epidermis and the upper parts of the hair follicles are Gram-positive cocci Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus sp.
These are generally nonpathogenic and considered to be commensal, although mutualistic and parasitic roles have been assigned to them. For example, staphylococci and propionibacteria produce fatty acids that inhibit the growth of fungi and yeast on the skin.
But, if Propionibacterium acnes, a normal inhabitant of the skin, becomes trapped in hair follicle, it may grow rapidly and cause inflammation and Large intestine. Sometimes potentially pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus is found on the face and hands in individuals who are nasal carriers.
This is because the face and hands are likely to become inoculated with the bacteria on the nasal membranes. Such individuals may autoinoculate themselves with the pathogen or spread it to other individuals or foods. Normal Flora of the Conjunctiva A variety of bacteria may be cultivated from the normal conjunctiva, but the number of organisms is usually small.
Staphylococcus epidermidis and certain coryneforms Propionibacterium acnes are dominant. Staphylococcus aureus, some streptococci, Haemophilus sp.
The conjunctiva is kept moist and healthy by the continuous secretions from the lachrymal glands. Blinking wipes the conjunctiva every few seconds mechanically washing away foreign objects including bacteria. Lachrymal secretions tears also contain bactericidal substances including lysozyme.
There is little or no opportunity for microorganisms to colonize the conjunctiva without special mechanisms to attach to the epithelial surfaces and some ability to withstand attack by lysozyme. Pathogens which do infect the conjunctiva e. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis are thought to be able to specifically attach to the conjunctival epithelium.
Newborn infants may be especially prone to bacterial attachment. Colonies of Propionibacterium acnes, found on skin and the conjunctiva. Normal Flora of the Respiratory Tract A large number of bacterial species colonize the upper respiratory tract nasopharynx.
The healthy sinuses, in contrast are sterile. Sometimes pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis colonize the pharynx. The lower respiratory tract trachea, bronchi, and pulmonary tissues is virtually free of microorganisms, mainly because of the efficient cleansing action of the ciliated epithelium which lines the tract.
Any bacteria reaching the lower respiratory tract are swept upward by the action of the mucociliary blanket that lines the bronchi, to be removed subsequently by coughing, sneezing, swallowing, etc. If the respiratory tract epithelium becomes damaged, as in bronchitis or viral pneumonia, the individual may become susceptible to infection by pathogens such as H.
Normal Flora of the Urogenital Tract Urine is normally sterile, and since the urinary tract is flushed with urine every few hours, microorganisms have problems gaining access and becoming established.
The flora of the anterior urethra, as indicated principally by urine cultures, suggests that the area my be inhabited by a relatively consistent normal flora consisting of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and some alpha-hemolytic streptococci.
Their numbers are not plentiful, however. In addition, some enteric bacteria e. The vagina becomes colonized soon after birth with corynebacteria, staphylococci, streptococci, E. During reproductive life, from puberty to menopause, the vaginal epithelium contains glycogen due to the actions of circulating estrogens.
The lactic acid and other products of metabolism inhibit colonization by all except this lactobacillus and a select number of lactic acid bacteria.
The resulting low pH of the vaginal epithelium prevents establishment by most other bacteria as well as the potentially-pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans.
This is a striking example of the protective effect of the normal bacterial flora for their human host.
Normal Flora of the Oral Cavity The presence of nutrients, epithelial debris, and secretions makes the mouth a favorable habitat for a great variety of bacteria. Oral bacteria include streptococci, lactobacilli, staphylococci and corynebacteria, with a great number of anaerobes, especially bacteroides.
The mouth presents a succession of different ecological situations with age, and this corresponds with changes in the composition of the normal flora.
At birth, the oral cavity is composed solely of the soft tissues of the lips, cheeks, tongue and palate, which are kept moist by the secretions of the salivary glands.
At birth the oral cavity is sterile but rapidly becomes colonized from the environment, particularly from the mother in the first feeding. The eruption of the teeth during the first year leads to colonization by S.Reader's testimonial.
I was suffering while following my gastroenterologist's advice. He had me taking fiber supplements, and laxatives and still I was having a lot of bloating, pain, constipation and diarrhea. The large intestine is the second to last part of the digestive system—the final stage of the alimentary canal is the anus —in vertebrate animals.
Its function is . The apicomplexa are an extremely large and diverse group (> named species). Seven species infect humans (Box). Plasmodium, as the causative agent of malaria, has the greatest impact on human benjaminpohle.coma is a relatively rare zoonotic infection.
The other five species are all classified as coccidia. However, recent molecular data . Impaction of the stomach is an uncommon cause of colic. Although it may be associated with ingestion of certain feedstuffs (eg, beet pulp, pelleted feeds, persimmon seeds, straw, barley), contributing factors (eg, diseased teeth, inadequate intake of water, and rapid eating) should also be considered.
The apicomplexa are an extremely large and diverse group (> named species). Seven species infect humans (Box). Plasmodium, as the causative agent of malaria, has the greatest impact on human benjaminpohle.coma is a relatively rare zoonotic infection.
The other five species are all classified as coccidia. However, recent molecular data indicates that Cryptosporidium is more closely related to. Impaction of the stomach is an uncommon cause of colic.
Although it may be associated with ingestion of certain feedstuffs (eg, beet pulp, pelleted feeds, persimmon seeds, straw, barley), contributing factors (eg, diseased teeth, inadequate intake of water, and rapid eating) should also be considered.