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References In this Scientific writing I provide guidelines for writing in scientific style, starting with the detail of punctuation and working up through to the whole document.
The guidelines are based on material presented in the publication manual of the American Psychological Association I indicate departures from APA style in brackets, thus: You can access the APA manual and related material via the links provided by Dewey This article also defines the general style for articles published at the Sportscience website.
Intending contributors should use this article in conjunction with the appropriate template downloaded from the Sportscience site. Some of the material in the templates is duplicated here. Use a colon to introduce an explanation or an example of something: If there are several simple explanations or examples, separate them with commas; otherwise, use semicolons.
Avoid excessive use of parentheses. Use them to make an aside an extra remark only if commas could be confusing. Never use parentheses within parentheses: Use brackets [ ] for material inserted into a quotation and ellipsis three dots for material omitted: According to Smith"few such [descriptive] studies were done… before Use one or two spaces after a period, colon, or semicolon.
Note, though, that Web browsers delete more than one space unless you make them non-breaking spaces. Use double quotation marks " for speech and verbatim quotations.
If a quotation is long, type it as an indented block of text without quotation marks, as shown in this example: According to Smith The "newbie effect" disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner.
Examples of methods included indirect observation, self-reports, and retrospective questionnaires. Don't use "smart quotes" 66 and 99because they create problems when translated into Web documents. Use single quotation marks ' for quotes within quotes.
Use the apostrophe ' to denote possession: Put commas, semicolons, colons, and periods outside closing quotation marks: Use Title Case initial upper-case letters for words of four or more letters in: If you wrote a clear cut case, you would imply a cut case that was clear. The emphasis in pronunciation also provides a clue.
Hyphenation is not necessary if the first word is an adverb or comparative adjective according to APA, anyway: Avoid italic bold, which does not always show up as bold in some browsers.
For example, items on the 5-point scale ranged from not at all to always. Put the title of a paper, book, or journal in italics in the body of the text. In the reference list, titles of papers are in normal case.
Put subheadings in Bold Title Case. Do not use italics for foreign words and abbreviations common in scientific English, such as ad lib, per se, et al. Choose the normal text font to get these symbols: Make a non-breaking space in Word documents with option-spacebar on a Mac, and with control-shift-spacebar in Word on a PC.
Macintosh users can also produce the following limited set of symbols by use of shift, option and command keys: Do not attempt to produce any other symbols using shift, command or option keys, because the symbols do not transfer to Web documents via Word.
Use the following well-known Latin abbreviations only within parentheses: Do not use the abbreviations for namely viz. Use abbreviations without explanation for the following terms in the Summary, but define them in the Methods: Note the lack of periods in acronyms and the lack of apostrophes in their plurals:Science and math learning series Writing Lab Reports & Scientific Papers What lab reports and scientific papers do: Persuade others to accept or reject hypotheses by .
Scientific Writing With regard to presenting your investigations, one of the objectives of this laboratory course is to develop your writing skills.
In science, writing is the most important means of communicating research findings. Writing Cover Letters for Scientific Manuscripts. Release Date: September 29, Category: Scientific Writing. Key Points Summary. Always submit an . ICZN is supported by the Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, National University of Singapore (Company Registration No.
E). ICZN is an Associate Participant to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) & a Scientific Member of the International Union of Biological Science (IUBS). 1 The Basics of Scientific Writing in APA Style For quite some time, the three Rs—Reading, ’Riting, and ’Rithmetic—have been the cornerstone of education.
Punctuation Hyphenation Italics andBold Fonts andSymbols Abbreviationsand Acronyms Headings,Paragraph Styles, and Lists Numbers andStatistics Tables Figures Use ofWords Grammar Flow ofIdeas Style for CitedPublications References. In this article I provide guidelines for writing in scientific style, starting with the detail of punctuation and working up through to the whole document.