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Posted by Satyendra on Aug 28, in Technical 1 comment Behaviour of Iron and Steel Materials during Tensile Testing The mechanical properties of iron and steels are often assessed through tensile testing. The testing technique is well standardized and can be conducted economically with a minimum of equipment.
Since iron and steel materials are being utilized in structural applications, they are to have tensile properties which meet the requirements of the relevant codes and standards. These requirements in the code and standards are the minimum strength and ductility levels.
Due to this, information available from tensile testing is often underutilized. However, direct examination of many of the metallurgical interactions which influence the results of tensile testing can considerably improve the usefulness of the testing data. Tensile testing of iron and steel materials is done for many reasons.
Tensile properties are normally included in material specification to ensure quality and are often used to predict the behaviour of these materials during different forms of loading other than uniaxial tension.
The result of tensile testing is normally used in the selection of these materials for engineering uses. It provides a relatively easy and cheap technique for developing mechanical property data for the selection, qualification, and utilization of these materials in engineering applications.
The elastic moduli of iron and steel materials are dependent on the rate at which the test sample is stretched strain rate. The yield strength YS or stress at which a specified amount of plastic strain takes place is also dependent on the test strain rate. Material composition, grain size, prior deformation, testing temperature and heat treatment can also influence the measured YS.
Normally, factors which increase the YS decrease the tensile ductility since these factors also obstruct plastic deformation. However, a notable exception to this trend is the increase in ductility which accompanies an increase in YS when the grain size is reduced.
Several structural materials, when strained to failure during tensile testing, fracture by ductile processes. The fracture surface is formed by the coalescence or combination of micro-voids.
These micro-voids usually nucleate during plastic deformation process, and coalescence begins after the plastic deformation process becomes highly localized. Strain rate, testing temperature, and microstructure influence the coalescence process and, under selected conditions such as decreasing temperaturethe fracture can undergo a transition from ductile to brittle process.
Such transitions can limit the utility of these materials which may not be noticed from strength measurements.
Elastic behaviour of iron and steel materials Iron and steel structures are usually designed so that the material used in construction undergoes elastic loadings during normal service conditions. These loads produce elastic or reversible strains in the material.The Tensile Behaviour of Common Engineering Polymers Abstract The mechanical properties of polymers vary significantly from polymer to polymer as a result of atomic structures and bond strength.
The tensile properties of representative samples from the common polymer were tested and evaluated in . According to Fig. 6 it can be seen that the model predicts with good agreement the tensile behaviour of glass fibre reinforced polyurethane at different strain rates.
Table 1 presents the experimental and predicted modulus of elasticity and Table 2 presents the experimental and .
Tensile Properties Tensile properties indicate how the material will react to forces being applied in tension. A tensile test is a fundamental mechanical test where a carefully prepared specimen is loaded in a very controlled manner while measuring the applied . Young's Modulus or Tensile Modulus alt.
Modulus of Elasticity - and Ultimate Tensile and Yield Strength for steel, glass, wood and other common materials Sponsored Links Tensile Modulus - or Young's Modulus alt. Modulus of Elasticity - is a measure of stiffness of an elastic material.
Tensile strength can be quoted as either true stress or engineering stress, but engineering stress is the most commonly used. Fatigue strength is a measure of the strength of a material or a component under cyclic loading,  and is usually more difficult to assess than the static strength measures.
selecting materials for engineering applications. Tensile properties frequently are included in ma- with tensile testing.
These include: Tensile specimens and test machines The most common testing machines are universal testers, which test ma-terials in tension, compression, or bending.