In humans Malaria is caused by one of four different protozoan parasites; Plasmodium vivax, P. It has been mentioned in ancient Sanskrit and Chinese documents. The disease is thought to have been brought to North America in the 16th and 17th centuries via African slaves and European colonists Turkington, Currently malaria is mostly isolated to Sub-Saharan Africa, India, Southern Asia, and Central and South America therefore predisposing travelers and the indigenous people in these locations to this disease McConell,
Millions of children die each year in Africa alone. After decades of neglect, funding from the international community to fight malaria has increased substantially in recent years Johansson E.
Increased funding has supported the scale-up of malaria control interventions such as the procurement and distribution of artemisinin-based combination therapy ACTthe anti-malarial drug class of choice, and insecticide-treated bed nets ITNSas well as other mosquito vector control strategies.
However, the incidence of malaria in other areas of Africa and other regions of the world, such as Amazonia, is static or increasing. Moreover, plasmodium falciparum has proven adept at acquiring and rapidly spreading resistance to anti-malarial drugs, and even now resistance may have been acquired in Asia to the artemisinin derivatives Dondrop A.
There is no question that a key tool for the control, elimination, or even possible eradication of malaria, in addition to anti-malarial drugs and vector control, is an effective vaccine, but is still not available.
Research on malaria vaccines is complicated by the complexity of the parasite life cycle. To complicate matters, reported mechanisms of protection against the liver stage of the parasite differ not only between human and rodent malaria species, but also between different rodent malaria species.
Therefore, infection of vaccinated animals with live parasites, as has previously been used to evaluate anti-malarial drugs, remains the most, if not only, meaningful readout of vaccine efficacy Egan,Cox, Traditional herbal medicines have been used to treat malaria for thousands of years in various parts of the world.
The first antimalarial drug used in the Occident was extracted from the bark of the Cinchona Rubiaceae species, the alkaloid quinine, still largely used. Infusions of the plant bark were used to treat human malaria as early as Baird et al.
Years later quinine was isolated and characterized Saxena et al. Another ancient medicinal plant of millenium use in the West is Artemisia annua, rediscovered in China in the seventies as an important source of the antimalarial artemisinin Bruce-Chwatt, ; Klayman, Artemisinin-combined therapies ACT were formally adopted as first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Nigeria from onwards Mokuolu et al.
Phyllanthus niruri, is one of the medicinal plants traditionally used to treat malaria in Nigeria. Phyllanthus niruri has been used traditionally to treat various illnesses, including renal stones, gastrointestinal disturbances, cough, hepatitis, gonorrhea, fever and malaria.
This plant was reported to possess hypoglycemic activity Hukuri et al,angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition Ueno et al,lipid lowering activity Khanna et al,anticancer activity Giridharan et al, and anti-HIV activity Qian-Cutrone et al, However, very little scientific information is available about its activity against P.
In our attempt to find new natural compounds with antimalarial activity that may provide an alternative to chloroquine, the report here on the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of extracts of P.
In this preliminary study, ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extracts of P. Hence the need for this project work. Malaria caused by P. It predominates in Africa; P. Malaria parasites are transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female mosquitoes of more than 30 anopheline species.
Globally, an estimated 3. Malaria is an entirely preventable and treatable disease, provided the currently recommended interventions are properly implemented. These interventions include; vector control through the use of insecticide-treated nets ITNsindoor residual spraying IRS and, in some specific settings, larval control, chemoprevention for the most vulnerable populations, particularly pregnant women and infants, confirmation of malaria diagnosis through microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests RDTs for every suspected case, and timely treatment with appropriate antimalarial medicines according to the parasite species and any documented drug resistance.
The Anopheles vector is the link between man and the malaria parasite. The genus consists of unicellular, eukaryotic protozoan parasites with a number of different species affecting humans including P. The parasites of the Apicomplexan phylum have complex life cycles and are all characterised by the presence of a special apical complex that is involved in host-cell invasion and which includes the microneme, dense granules and rhoptries Figure 1.
Taken from Cowman and Crabb, At the same time, these cells protect the parasites from host immune responses. The parasites are transmitted by the female Anopheles gambiae and A.
The mosquitoes inject a sporozoite form of the parasites into the subcutaneous layer of the host skin during a blood meal. The sporozoites rapidly move to the liver where they infect the hepatocytes and differentiate into thousands of merozoites.
These are subsequently released into the bloodstream where they invade erythrocytes. This invasion characterises the onset of the intra-erythrocytic asexual blood stage of the parasitic life cycle. The parasite cycles through ring, trophozoite and schizont stages and in so doing produce between 16 and 32 daughter merozoites per erythrocyte egression.
This is accompanied by the characteristic bursts of fever and anaemia associated with the disease. The daughter merozoites repeat the asexual cycle by invading free erythrocytes. Some intra-erythrocytic stages, however, develop into male or female gametocytes that are ingested by the mosquito during its next blood meal.
The zygotes differentiate into ookinetes that subsequently cross the midgut and develop into oocysts from which sporozoites are released. These sporozoites are stored in the salivary glands and are once again injected into the human host by the mosquito to repeat the parasitic life cycle, and thus increasing the number of malaria infectious cases Wirth, The life cycle of the P.The work contained in this thesis is split into two sections.
Each section covers a different biological pathway, its current importance as a potential drug target, and the syntheses towards a selection of natural products and analogues relevant to the pathway.
In Section A, the novel approach towards a new class of n-formyl amides is described. A disadvantage of these type of antibiotics as antimalarials is the development of photosensitivity during treatment, which is an obvious drawback for tourists entering malaria areas (Korenromp et al., ).
Malaria is effectively treated in its early stages with oral antimalarial medications. In severe cases hospitalization, I.V.
fluids, medications, RBC transfusions, kidney dialysis and assisted breathing by ventilator may be necessary (Turkington, ). A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF MALARIA WITH AN Lindsay Thomas A thesis submitted to the faculty of The University of Mississippi in partial fulfillment of the Sally McDonnell Barksdale Honors College.
Oxford The major problem with antimalarials is the resistance that Plasmodium is. This free Science essay on Research proposal: Phyllanthus niruri for Malaria is perfect for Science students to use as an example.
Free malaria papers, essays, and research papers. Analysis of Malaria - Malaria is one of the most prevalent and serious illnesses that affects a majority of the world’s population.